Q: How can I be Certain an Agent has Authority to Act under a Power of Attorney Agreement?
A: WBA continues to field a variety of questions about when and how an agent may act under a Power of Attorney (POA) agreement. This Q&A is dedicated to that question generally.
A POA agreement is a legal document whereby one party (the principal) designates authority to act on their behalf to another party (the agent). Always ensure that any POA agreement bank receives relates to powers over finances. Take a copy of and review any POA agreement related to finances the bank may receive for its customers. Customers may bring in the model agreement provided by Wisconsin in accordance with Chapter 244 or one drafted by an attorney. Both are equally valid methods, but may contain different terms and provisions. Confirm whether the POA agreement is: durable, non-durable, or springing. This refers to when the agent may act: either while the principal is incapacitated, cease while the principal is incapacitated, or after a predetermined event.
All of the agent’s authority to act comes from what is written within the POA agreement. Ideally, the POA agreement is clear and specific. Sometimes, it may not be. For example, the POA agreement may refer to “general powers of finances.” Wisconsin Statute Section 244.41 indicates which authority is covered by a general grant and those powers that require a specific grant. You will want to review that portion of the statute to assist in determining the agent’s authority. In any case, carefully review the document, and consider obtaining an opinion from the bank’s own counsel.
Special rules exist for agency on joint deposit accounts. All parties to the joint account must designate the agent to have authority on the account for the agency to be valid. However, only one party needs to revoke that authority in order for the revocation to be effective.
Generally, agents may not appoint other agents, and generally may not conduct estate planning activities on behalf of the principle. Look for specific language granting this authority if an agent wishes to act in this way and consider obtaining an opinion from the bank’s own counsel.
A POA agreement for personal finances of an individual doesn’t automatically mean that an agent can act with respect to any fiduciary authority the ward has. For example, while a trustee may have the authority to appoint an agent over a trust, in order for the trustee to appoint an agent over a trust they should do so in their capacity as a trustee rather than as an individual.
As a final reminder, POA agreements for health care do not apply to deposit accounts. They relate to health care decisions rather than finances.
As always, if you have any questions on POA matters or other compliance-related concerns, call the WBA legal hotline at 608-441-1200 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Note: The above information is not intended to provide legal advice; rather, it is intended to provide general information about banking issues. Consult your institution's attorney for special legal advice or assistance.